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Case Study Practice

Case Study Practice

The first case study is provided as an example. The other case studies are for you to use for practice. For each case study, listen to the entire audio several times and download the transcribed sample. The sample has been transcribed following SALT's transcription conventions. The transcripts are timed and all bound morphemes, mazes and pauses are marked. Omissions (e.g., *was, they/*re) and error codes (e.g., [EW] and [EU]) are NOT marked. Before analyzing the transcript, you should use the SALT editor to mark all the omissions and errors which occur in the sample. You may also find it informative to score the transcript for Subordination Index (SI) and, if appropriiate, for Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS). When you have finished coding the transcript, use SALT to analyze the transcript. Based on this analysis, write up your report following the format outlined here.

Report Format

  • Background and Assessment Measure
    provided for each case study
  • SALT Analysis
    • Generate the Performance Report selected from the Database or Analyze menu. 
    • Edit this report to add detail or additional interpretation.
  • Interpretation
    The following are suggestions to include in this portion of the report
    • Was the sample valid? Did the examiner follow elicitation protocol? Why or why not?
    • What do the results of your language sample and analyses mean?
    • What are areas of strength/weakness?
    • Does the student fit one or more of the clinical typologies? If yes, which one(s)?
  • Plan
    Use this portion of the report to answer the following questions:
    • Should this student receive speech language services? Why or why not?
    • What areas need to be addressed in intervention?

Laura 9;0 (example)

Background

Laura is a nine-year-old student who has received speech and language services since first grade. She was referred to speech therapy by her kindergarten teacher who reported that Laura had trouble keeping up in class and seemed to have problems follow complex directions. Her teacher describes Laura as a quiet student who gives her best effort during classroom activities. Laura's Speech Language Pathologist is completing her three-year re-evaluation. Laura lives with her mother and two older brothers. English is the only language spoken in the home.

Assessment Measure

Laura completed a story retell of A Porcupine Named Fluffy (Lester, 1986). She was somewhat reticent to complete the task; however, with encouragement from the clinician, she completed the task. The sample is felt to be a valid indicator of her present level of abilities.

Transcription and Coding Notes

Listen to Laura's sample    Download SALT transcript for analysis

View example report

Andy 6;7

Background

Andy is completing his first year of speech therapy. He is being treated for articulation errors as well as language impairment. His teacher describes Andy as a quiet student who likes people and enjoys school. This report will document the need for continued speech therapy services for his annual Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Per parent report, Andy’s older brother had delayed language and was treated in speech therapy for language skills until third grade. Andy and his parents speak Standard American English.

Assessment Measure

Andy completed a "Speaker Selects Story" narrative by retelling the movie Home Alone. Andy is very familiar with this movie as he owns it and has viewed it many times. 

Transcription and Coding Notes

  • Utterances are segmented into C-units. 
  • The transcript is timed and all bound morphemes, mazes, and pauses are marked.
  • Omissions and error codes have NOT been marked.
  • The transcript has NOT been coded for Subordination Index (SI).

Listen to Andy's sample   Download SALT transcript for coding and analysis

Aaron 7;0

Background

Aaron is a second grader who has received speech and language services for speech intelligibility as well as language since age five. This assessment is for end-of-year testing to see if Aaron will qualify for services the following year. Per teacher report, Aaron has done well this year in the second grade and reports that he is much easier to understand and that his language skills seem to have improved. She describes Aaron as a friendly boy who enjoys interacting with his classmates and participates well in activities. Aaron and his parents speak Standard American English.

Assessment Measure

A conversational language sample was collected from Aaron to assess his progress with productive language. Aaron readily participated in the language sample collection.

Transcription and Coding Notes

  • Utterances are segmented into C-units. 
  • The transcript is timed and all bound morphemes, mazes, and pauses are marked.
  • Omissions and error codes have NOT been marked.
  • The transcript has NOT been coded for Subordination Index (SI).

Listen to Aaron's sample   Download SALT transcript for coding and analysis

Cyanna 8;7 (AAE)

Background

Cyanna is in third grade and just transferred school districts. She was referred by her mother and teacher for a speech therapy consult. Cyanna has received special education services since first grade. Her mother reports that Cyanna’s speech has improved tremendously and that Cyanna is much easier to understand. However, Cyanna’s mother feels that Cyanna talks slow and sometimes has diffiulty understanding complex directions. Cyanna’s teacher also noted that following directions in the classroom can be difficult for her. Cyanna is African American and, according to her teacher, uses African American English (AAE) dialect in the classroom as well as with friends. Cyanna’s parents also use AAE dialect.

Assessment Measure

A conversational language sample was collected from Cyanna to assess productive language skills and her use of AAE dialect.

Transcription and Coding Notes

  • Utterances are segmented into C-units. 
  • The transcript is timed and all bound morphemes, mazes, and pauses are marked.
  • Omissions and error codes have NOT been marked.
  • The transcript has NOT been coded for Subordination Index (SI).

Listen to Cyanna's sample   Download SALT transcript for coding and analysis

Bianca 8;11

Background

Bianca is in the third grade and has been referred for a speech therapy consult. Her teacher stated that sometimes her peers get frustrated when talking with Bianca and that Bianca tends to lose her listeners. Her teacher reports that she is showing some evidence of difficulty with writing skills. Bianca and her family speak Standard American English.

Assessment Measure

Bianca completed a narrative retell of the story A Porcupine Named Fluffy (Lester, 1986) to assess productive language skills. She appeared to give her best effort for the language sample.

Transcription and Coding Notes

  • Utterances are segmented into C-units. 
  • The transcript is timed and all bound morphemes, mazes, and pauses are marked.
  • Omissions and error codes have NOT been marked.
  • The transcript has NOT been coded for Subordination Index (SI) or Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS).

Listen to Bianca's sample   Download SALT transcript for coding and analysis

Jackson 16;1

Background

Jackson is a 16 year old high school student who has a history of speech and language impairments. He received early intervention at age three and continued with services through middle school. He was referred by his English teacher who noted that Jackson has difficulty with written language. His teacher also noted that often times when speaking to Jackson, he has a difficult time understanding exactly what Jackson means. Jackson also has difficulty with overall organization skills required for school. Jackson is bi-racial (African American and Caucasian). His father uses African American English and his mother uses Standard American English.

Assessment Measure

A "Speaker Selects Story" narrative was elicited to assess higher level productive language skills and organization of language. Jackson retold the movie Remember the Titans, which he has seen many times. Jackson was compliant with the task and seemed to enjoy talking with the clinician.

Transcription and Coding Notes

  • Utterances are segmented into C-units. 
  • The transcript is timed and all bound morphemes, mazes, and pauses are marked.
  • Omissions and error codes have NOT been marked.
  • The transcript has NOT been coded for Subordination Index (SI).

Listen to Jackson's sample    Download SALT transcript for coding and analysis

Sonia 5;5 (Bilingual S/E)

Background

Sonia is a bilingual student (Spanish and English speaking) who started kindergarten this year. She is enrolled in English as a second language curriculum at her school. She was referred by her kindergarten teacher as she seems to have more difficulty with English than her bilingual classmates. Her teacher reports that “Sonia just seems to take forever to get her message across.” Sonia’s teacher also reports that Sonia is a good listener and pays attention in class. Sonia’s parents are both monolingual Spanish speakers. Her older siblings, however, are proficient in both Spanish and English. Sonia lives at home with her parents, siblings, and maternal grandmother.

Assessment Measure

Sonia completed a story retell of Frog, Where are You? (Mayer, 1969) in English and then again in Spanish. She completed both tasks giving her best effort.

Transcription and Coding Notes

  • Utterances are segmented into modified C-units. 
  • The transcripts are timed and all bound morphemes, mazes, and pauses are marked.
  • Omissions and error codes have NOT been marked.
  • The transcripts have NOT been coded for Subordination Index (SI) or Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS).

Listen to Sonia's English sample   Download English SALT transcript for coding and analysis

Listen to Sonia's Spanish sample   Download Spanish SALT transcript for coding and analysis