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SALT Reference Book (PDF)

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This clinical guide book incorporates 25 years of research and clinical practice using language sample analysis, providing both the conceptual background of LSA and practical guidelines for using SALT. It is included as a PDF file with the purchase of SALT 24 software (accessed from the Help menu). This product is the PDF version of the reference book, for those who have access to the software on university-owned computers, but prefer a personal PDF of reference book. 


This book provides the conceptual background of LSA, practical guidelines for using SALT, and extensive appendices for quick reference to all the database protocols, transcription conventions, special coding, and more. It is included as a PDF file with the purchase of SALT 24 software (accessed from the Help menu).

ASSESSING LANGUAGE PRODUCTION USING SALT SOFTWARE: A Clinician's Guide to Language Sample Analysis (3rd Edition)
Edited by Jon F. Miller, Karen Andriacchi, and Ann Nockerts
With contributions from Joyelle DiVall-Rayan, Aquiles Iglesias, Nikola Nelson, Raúl Rojas, and Julie Washington

Published by SALT Software LLC, Madison, WI (2019)

  • Chapter 1: Introduction to LSA Using SALT
  • Chapter 2: Eliciting Language Samples
  • Chapter 3: Transcribing Language Samples
  • Chapter 4: Analyzing Language Samples
  • Chapter 5: Interpreting Language Samples
  • Chapter 6: Beyond Standard Measures
  • Chapter 7: Assessing the Bilingual (Spanish/English) Population
  • Chapter 8: The Dialect Features of AAE and Their Importance in LSA
  • Chapter 9: Additional Applications of SALT
  • Chapter 10: Pulling It All Together: Examples from our case study files
  • Appendix A: Play Database
  • Appendix B: Conversation Database
  • Appendix C: Narrative SSS Database
  • Appendix D: Narrative Story Retell Database
  • Appendix E: Expository Database
  • Appendix F: Persuasion Database
  • Appendix G: Bilingual Spanish/English Story Retell Databases
  • Appendix H: Bilingual Spanish/English Unique Story Databases
  • Appendix I: Monolingual Spanish Story Retell Database
  • Appendix J: ENNI Database
  • Appendix K: TNL2 & TNL Narrative Samples Databases
  • Appendix L: New Zealand - Australia Databases
  • Appendix M: Summary of SALT Transcription Conventions
  • Appendix N: C-Unit Segmentation Rules
  • Appendix O: Subordination Index
  • Appendix P: Narrative Scoring Scheme
  • Appendix Q: Expository Scoring Scheme
  • Appendix R: Persuasion Scoring Scheme
  • Appendix S: Oral Narrative Quality
  • Appendix T: Guide to the SALT Variables
  • Appendix U: Using SALT to Assess the Common Core
  • Appendix V: Understanding SALT Measures: Standard Deviation